Table of Contents: Telecommunication Breakdown

1  A DIGITAL RADIO
    1.1  A Digital Radio
    1.2  An Illustrative Design
    1.3  The Complete Onion
2  A TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM
    2.1  Electromagnetic Transmission of Analog Waveforms
    2.2  Bandwidth
    2.3  Upconversion at the Transmitter
    2.4  Frequency Division Multiplexing
    2.5  Filters that Remove Frequencies
    2.6  Analog Downconversion
    2.7  Analog Core of Digital Communication System
    2.8  Sampling at the Receiver
    2.9  Digital Communications Around an Analog Core
    2.10  Pulse Shaping
    2.11  Synchronization
    2.12  Equalization
    2.13  Decisions and Error Measures
    2.14  Coding and Decoding
    2.15  A Telecommunication System
    2.16  For Further Reading
3  THE FIVE ELEMENTS
    3.1  Finding the Spectrum of a Signal
    3.2  The First Element: Oscillators
    3.3  The Second Element: Linear Filters
    3.4  The Third Element: Samplers
    3.5  The Fourth Element: Static Nonlinearities
    3.6  The Fifth Element: Adaptation
    3.7  Summary
    3.8  For Further Reading
4  MODELLING CORRUPTION
    4.1  When Bad Things Happen to Good Signals
        4.1.1  Other Users
        4.1.2  Broadband Noise
        4.1.3  Narrowband Noise
        4.1.4  Multipath Interference
        4.1.5  Fading
    4.2  Linear Systems: Linear Filters
    4.3  The Delta "Function"
    4.4  Convolution in Time: It's What Linear Systems Do
    4.5  Convolution Ǩ Multiplication
    4.6  Improving SNR
    4.7  For Further Reading
5  ANALOG (DE)MODULATION
    5.1  Amplitude Modulation with Large Carrier
    5.2  Amplitude Modulation with Suppressed Carrier
    5.3  Quadrature Modulation
    5.4  Injection to Intermediate Frequency
    5.5  For Further Reading
6  SAMPLING with AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL
    6.1  Sampling and Aliasing
    6.2  Downconversion via Sampling
    6.3  Exploring Sampling in MATLAB
    6.4  Interpolation and Reconstruction
    6.5  Iteration and Optimization
    6.6  An Example of Optimization: Polynomial Minimization
    6.7  Automatic Gain Control
    6.8  Using an AGC to Combat Fading
    6.9  Summary
    6.10  For Further Reading
7  DIGITAL FILTERING AND THE DFT
    7.1  Discrete Time and Discrete Frequency
        7.1.1  Understanding the DFT
        7.1.2  Using the DFT
    7.2  Practical Filtering
        7.2.1  Implementing Filters
        7.2.2  Filter Design
    7.3  For Further Reading
8  BITS TO SYMBOLS TO SIGNALS
    8.1  Bits to Symbols
    8.2  Symbols to Signals
    8.3  Correlation
    8.4  Receive Filtering: From Signals to Symbols
    8.5  Frame Synchronization: From Symbols to Bits
9  STUFF HAPPENS
    9.1  An Ideal Digital Communication System
    9.2  Simulating the Ideal System
    9.3  Flat Fading: A Simple Impairment and a Simple Fix
    9.4  Other Impairments: More "What Ifs"
        9.4.1  Additive Channel Noise
        9.4.2  Multipath Interference
        9.4.3  Carrier Phase Offset
        9.4.4  Carrier Frequency Offset
        9.4.5  Downsampler Timing Offset
        9.4.6  Downsampler Period Offset
        9.4.7  Repairing Impairments
10  CARRIER RECOVERY
    10.1  Phase and Frequency Estimation via an FFT
    10.2  Squared Difference Loop
    10.3  The Phase Locked Loop
    10.4  The Costas Loop
    10.5  Decision Directed Phase Tracking
    10.6  Frequency Tracking
        10.6.1  Direct Frequency Estimation
        10.6.2  Indirect Frequency Estimation
    10.7  For Further Reading
11  PULSE SHAPING AND RECEIVE FILTERING
    11.1  Spectrum of the Pulse: Spectrum of the Signal
    11.2  Intersymbol Interference
    11.3  Eye Diagrams
    11.4  Nyquist Pulses
    11.5  Matched Filtering
    11.6  Matched Transmit and Receive Filters
12  TIMING RECOVERY
    12.1  The Problem of Timing Recovery
    12.2  An Example
    12.3  Decision Directed Timing Recovery
    12.4  Timing Recovery via Output Power Maximization
    12.5  Two Examples
14  LINEAR EQUALIZATION
    14.1  Multipath Interference
    14.2  Trained Least-Squares Linear Equalization
        14.2.1  A Matrix Description
        14.2.2  Source Recovery Error
        14.2.3  The Least-Squares Solution
        14.2.4  Summary of Least-squares Equalizer Design
        14.2.5  Complex Signals and Parameters
        14.2.6  Fractionally-Spaced Equalization
    14.3  An Adaptive Approach to Trained Equalization
    14.4  Decision-Directed Linear Equalization
    14.5  Dispersion-Minimizing Linear Equalization
    14.6  Examples and Observations
    14.7  For Further Reading
15  CODING
    15.1  What is Information?
    15.2  Redundancy
    15.3  Entropy
    15.4  Channel Capacity
    15.5  Source Coding
    15.6  Channel Coding
    15.7  Encoding a Compact Disc
    15.8  For Further Reading
16  MIX'N'MATCH\textregistered RECEIVER DESIGN
    16.1  How the Received Signal is Constructed
    16.2  A Design Methodology for the M6 Receiver
        16.2.1  Stage One: Ordering the Pieces
        16.2.2  Stage Two: Selecting Components
        16.2.3  Stage Three: Anticipating Impairments
        16.2.4  Sources of Error and Trade-Offs
        16.2.5  Tuning and Testing
    16.3  The M6 Receiver Design Challenge
    16.4  For Further Reading
A  TRANSFORMS, IDENTITIES AND FORMULAS
    A.1  Trigonometric Identities
    A.2  Fourier Transforms and Properties
    A.3  Energy and Power
    A.4  Z-Transforms and Properties
    A.5  Integral and Derivative Formulas
    A.6  Matrix Algebra
B  SIMULATING NOISE
C  ENVELOPE OF A BANDPASS SIGNAL
D  RELATING THE FOURIER TRANSFORM AND THE DFT
    D.1  The Fourier Transform and its Inverse
    D.2  The DFT and the Fourier Transform
E  POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY
F  RELATING DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS TO FREQUENCY RESPONSE AND INTERSYMBOL INTERFERENCE
    F.1  Z-Transforms
    F.2  Sketching the Frequency Response From the Z-Transform
    F.3  Measuring Intersymbol Interference
G  AVERAGES and AVERAGING
    G.1  Averages and Filters
    G.2  Derivatives and Filters
    G.3  Differentiation is a Technique: Approximation is an Art